The Fokker F.70 and F.100 Regional Jet

1. Architecture Evolution:

Complementing the F.27 Friendship turboprop, the F.28 Fellowship was advised to action pure-jet comfort, college speeds, and bargain block times commonly associated with aloft twins, such as the BAC-111, the DC-9, and the 737, to bounded avenue operators. But, afterward the appeal for added adaptation in all markets, and gluttonous to absorb then-emerging abstruse advances, Fokker anon envisioned a almsman that would not alone borrow on the traditional, short-range jet segment, but alter abounding of its aboriginal bearing types.

Initial architecture studies, appointed P315, F.28-2, and Super F.28, were undertaken in 1977 and were based aloft the F.28-4000-the accomplished adaptation and numerically a lot of accustomed of the six versions, but featured a continued accumulation for up to 115 passengers, a new wing, 16,500 thrust-pound engines, a Mach 0.75 cruise speed, and a 1,500 abyssal mile range. Advised affairs dates, characterized by two-year intervals, included 1979 for the type’s launch, 1981 for its aboriginal flight, and 1983 for its certification.

Although powerplant advance had been fabricated aback the antecedent de Havilland Ghost and Rolls Royce Avon engines had been introduced, with the brand of the Spey and Spey Junior that appropriately powered the BAC-111 and the F.28, the bulk of types was still actual limited, and this served as the greatest obstacle to a added avant-garde and aggressive Fellowship successor.

Projected powerplants included an bigger adaptation of the Rolls Royce Spey, accession of the Pratt and Whitney JT10D, a scaled-down CFM-56, and a proposed Rolls Royce RB.432. However, their manufacturers were either afraid to barrage such engines or optimized them for aircraft with college gross weights than Fokker was considering.

In the event, these obstacles may accept become opportunities, because still-increasing appeal dictated even greater capacities-of about 150 passengers-on short- to medium-range routes, and a accumulation avant-garde abundant for six-abreast, single-aisle drillmaster seating-or one added than the BAC-111, DC-9, or F.28 had offered.

Yielding to bazaar demand, and buoyed by new generation, 20,000 thrust-pound CFM56-3 and RB.432 turbofans, Fokker adopted to aberrate from its five-across basement accustomed and action a sixth one with a new angle appointed F.29, which would access the ranks of added second-generation 150-seaters. Capacity, bifold that of the F.28, was 138 at a 34-inch angle or 156 at a 30-inch pitch, and ambit was advancing as 1,700 abyssal miles, although its all-embracing agreement remained identical to its abate antecedent with two aft-mounted engines and a t-tail to abstain bankrupt arrest with the accumbent stabilizers. The aboriginal flight was now slated for 1983.

Because the development costs of such an aggressive activity were aloft the bread-and-butter activity of a baby Dutch bounded aircraft manufacturer, however, affairs absoluteness was accidental aloft a hotlink with a risk-sharing partner.

McDonnell-Douglas, gluttonous to action its own higher-capacity, avant-garde DC-9 almsman with its projected, 150-passenger Avant-garde Technology Medium Ambit ATMR-II proposal, accustomed the Fokker action and, accumulation it with the analogously configured F.29, devised the McDonnell-Douglas Fokker MDF-100, advised for 2,000 abyssal mile sectors with 153 dual-class, six-abreast passengers.

Although the t-tail was retained, its two turbofans were relocated and were now pylon-mounted below and avant-garde of the top aspect ratio, supercritical wing.

Despite its abstruse merits, it would alone be launched if acceptable orders could absolve its purpose, and in this case, none did, even afterwards ample business efforts, appropriately banishment abandoning of both the activity and the affiliation in 1982, or three years afore the avant-garde airliner’s advised aboriginal flight.

McDonnell-Douglas ultimately offered its continued accumulation MD-80 powered by refanned JT8D-209 engines and this, forth with the Airbus A-320 ancestors and Boeing 737-300 to -500 series, saturated what would accept been the ATMR-II’s market.

Fokker, agilely acquainted that abstruse advances were eclipsing both its turboprop F.27 and pure-jet F.28 bounded products, adopted to chase its acting partner’s advance by alteration and accretion its beforehand offering.

Revisiting its F.28-4000-based P315 architecture study, it absitively to absorb avant-garde engines and systems in a stretched-fuselage almsman optimized for 100-passengers and appropriately appointed “F.100,” announcement the program, forth with that of its next-generation F.50 turboprop, on November 24, 1983.

2. Fokker F.100:

Featuring a light-alloy, fail-safe, hot-bonded accumulation 18.10 anxiety best than the F.28-4000′s, it offered, through blended construction, a 900-pound weight reduction, but retained its egg-shaped commuter windows and tail-installed belly air brake, consistent in a 106-foot, 7.5 inch continued accumulation breadth and a 116 feet, 6 ¾ inch all-embracing aircraft length.

Two lower baggage/cargo holds were accessed by three starboard, upward-opening doors.

The 17-degree sweptback wings, with a 92-foot, 1.5-inch bulk and 8.43 aspect ratio, was based aloft the Fellowship’s, but alien revised arch and abaft edges and a greater arch bend ambit to access the accelerated cafe abuttals and abatement drag. Accumulation absolutely powered, hydraulically actuated ailerons, double-slotted Fowler flaps, and five-panel lift dumpers avant-garde of them, it featured a 1,006.4-square-foot area.

The tailplane bulk was 32 feet, 11 ¼ inches.

The engine, the key to the aircraft, had not been accessible during Fokker’s earlier, absolute studies. Designed for the Gulfstream G.IV business jet, the Rolls Royce Tay, accumulation the high-pressure area of the Spey Junior 555-which itself had powered the F.28-introduced a new airy section.

Pylon army to the aft accumulation sides, the advance reverser-equipped Mk 620 turbofans, developing 13,850 pounds of thrust, were fed by 1,274 US gallons of ammunition agitated in capital accession tanks.

The aircraft was ground-supported by a twin-wheeled, hydraulically actuated, bike undercarriage.

Access was provided by a forward, left, manually operated, outward-opening, escape slid-equipped commuter aperture or optionally with an electronically-powered, out- and downward-opening, afire airstair, which congenital retractable handrails and a foldable basal step.

A galley application aperture was amid on the forward, appropriate side, aloft from it, while four plug-type, inward-opening emergency exits were positioned over the wing.

The two-pilot bottle cockpit featured two reclinable, lap belt- and accept harness-equipped seats, which were provisioned with thigh and lumbar supports and were angular and angular adjustable. A third, wall-stored observer’s bench was amid abaft the pilot’s.

The capital apparatus panel, subdivided into captain’s, center, and aboriginal officer’s sections, featured bifold primary and accessory action instruments, although standby action instruments were abnormally amid on the captain’s ancillary and the ammunition abacus and anchor adjustment indicators were installed on the aboriginal officer’s side.

The six capital apparatus panels of the Collins cyberbanking flight apparatus adjustment (EFIS) consisted of two primary flight displays (PFDs), two aeronautics displays (NDs), and two multifunction affectation units (MFDUs). The aloft two provided flight and aeronautics information, while the closing amid engine parameters, alerts, procedures, and messages.

The centermost console offered engine adumbration and action admonishing adjustment displays, forth with landing accessory controls and indicators.

The basement sported the engine advance levers, accessory and trim handles, dispatch and parking brakes, the stick pusher, and the flight administration adjustment (FMS).

Other cockpit avionics included a agenda aircraft flight ascendancy and accession adjustment (AFCAS) for chic IIIA automated landings, a dual-channel full-flight administration autothrottle system, an ARINC 702 bifold flight administration system, an ARINC 706 bifold agenda air abstracts system, bifold radio altimeters, acclimate radar, bifold ARINC 709 ambit barometer accessories (DME), bifold ARINC 710 apparatus landing systems (ILS), and bifold ARINC 711 VORs with brand alarm receivers.

The cabin, antic a “new look” interior, was standardly configured with two electronically-powered, cooler water-provisioned galley units, two lavatories, two apparel closets, and amid aerial accumulator compartments for duke luggage.

Mixed chic arrange included 12 four-abreast aboriginal chic seats at a 36-inch angle and 85 five-abreast drillmaster seats at a 32-inch pitch, or a around even adjustment of 55 business to 50 abridgement seats. Single-class accommodation, at a 32-inch pitch, totaled 107.

Aircraft systems included two absolute hydraulic systems for adenoids caster steering, brake, undercarriage, and flight apparent actuation; an AiResearch pressurization and air conditioning system; an AiResearch aeriform system; an AiResearch thermal anti-icing adjustment for the wings and tail; and a Garrett GTCP36-150RR abetting ability assemblage (APU), applicable at altitudes of up to 35,000 feet.

3. Flight Analysis Program:

Although the aircraft’s avionics were activated on an beforehand F.28, the action analysis affairs active two stretched-fuselage F.100-standard aircraft, the first, registered PH-MKH, aerial on November 30, 1986 and culminating, afterwards a 2.5-hour countdown flight, with the aboriginal automated access and blaze for a alarming afterwards such a alpha operation.

Accumulating 150 hours, it was abutting by the added prototype, PH-MKC, which aboriginal flew on February 25 of the afterward year, and both were subjected to avant-garde acute and operational realms, including baptize assimilation tests in Cranfield, aerodrome achievement tests in Granada, hot acclimate tests in Tunis, and icing tests in Norway, afore catastrophe their 11-month, 1,100-hour, 1,500-landing program. The alone apparent anomalies baldheaded were those involving the brakes and the advance reversers.

Dutch RLD and US FAA blazon certifications were granted, respectively, on November 20, 1987 and May 30, 1989.

Retrofitted with 15,100 thrust-pound Rolls Royce Tay Mk 650 engines, ancestor PH-MKH aboriginal flew on June 8, 1988 and was certified with them on July 1 of the afterward year.

Performance abstracts assorted according to one of three gross weight options: standard, intermediate, and high. Powered by 13,850 thrust-pound Tay Mk 620s, the aboriginal offered a 95,000-pound best yield off weight, an 85,500-pound best landing weight, and a 1,484 statute mile ambit with 107 cartage and baggage. The second, accompanying with the 15,100 thrust-pound Tay Mk 650s, appropriately equaled 98,000 pounds, 88,000 pounds, and 1,784 statute miles, while the third, afresh with the uprated turbofans, were 101,500 pounds, 88,000 pounds, and 1,933 statute miles. The accession of a 984-US gallon centermost ammunition tank, accessible as of 1993, added absolute adaptation to 3,531 gallons.

4. Production:

Although F.100 final accumulation occurred at Schiphol Oost, in Holland, aircraft apparatus were bogus by Shorts, of Belfast, Northern Ireland (wings), MBB of Germany (fuselage sections and the tail), and Dowty Rotol (the undercarriage).

5. In Service:

While Fokker envisioned that the F.28 would become the better aircraft in a baby airline’s fleet, it against predicted that the F.100 would become the aboriginal aircraft in a ample airline’s fleet. Their anticipation accepted accurate.

Swissair placed the barrage adjustment for eight aircraft, forth with six options, in July of 1984, and these were followed by orders and options for ten and 5 from KLM in May of 1985 and 20 and 20 in July by USAir, the closing enabling Fokker to access the all-important US market. By the time that the added ancestor had aureate in 1987, orders and options had totaled 178.

The better order, however-and the added in the American market-was for 75 close and 75 optioned aircraft placed by American Airlines itself in March of 1989, which approved to alter its Boeing 727s and its European bounded jet BAe-146 rival, acquired during the AirCal buyout, with the type.

USAir took supply of the aboriginal Tay 650 adaptation on the aforementioned day that it was certified, on July 1, 1989.

By the end of that year, 28 aircraft had been produced and the adjustment book counted 382 by the alpha of 1990.

Other aloft operators included Air Littoral, Air UK, British Midland, Ceramics Eastern, Garuda Indonesia, Mexicana, Portugalia, Sempati Air, TAM Brazilian, Iran Air, Korean Air, Midway Airlines, TAT European, Deutsche BA, and Transwede.

A archetypal inter-European F.100 flight was sampled in June of 1994 with Swissair, which had initially taken supply of the blazon on February 29, 1988 and had inaugurated it into account two months later, on April 25, replacing its first-generation DC-9-30s.

Formed on March 26, 1931 as a aftereffect of the Ad Astra Aero and Balair merger, it inaugurated Lockheed Orion accurate avenue account from Basel to Vienna with boilerplate stops in Zurich and Munich, operating it year-round, as against to its initial, summer-only schedule, four years later.

Douglas aircraft facilitated advance and avenue adjustment amplification with DC-2 and, by 1936, DC-3 acquisitions.

World War II, as had occurred with all European carriers, resulted in a account suspension-in this case during the six-year aeon from 1939 to 1945-but Swissair bound affiliated the continental dots with wings thereafter and, two years later, was appointed Switzerland’s civic airline.

Transatlantic service, to New York, commenced on May 2 of that year with the supply of quad-engined DC-4s and the avenue became a appointed one in 1949. It was served by larger, longer-range DC-6Bs two years later.

North American account was mirrored by that to its southern analogue during the early-1950s, with an antecedent Zurich-Geneva-Lisbon-Dakkar-Receife-Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paulo avenue inaugurated on May 27, 1954, and extensions were fabricated to Montevideo and Buenos Aires three years later.

Its European network, operated by added avant-garde equipment, saw account with Convair CV-240s in 1949 and CV-440 Metropolitans in 1956, and continued wings, literally, agitated cartage aloft the Atlantic on ultra-long-range DC-7Cs. The blazon not alone facilitated an access in the bulk of ceaseless routes served, but paved the way to a 1957 addendum to the Far East, admitting on annihilation but a absolute routing. Departing Zurich, the aircraft affected down in Geneva, Beirut, Karachi, Bombay, Bangkok, and Manila afore absolute in Tokyo.

So accustomed was it, however, that a added avenue flow, from Zurich to Hong Kong and Tokyo, was bound introduced.

Wing-mounted propellers anon yielded to nacelle-encased pure-jet engines, antecedent transcontinental and European accessories appropriately including DC-8-30s and SE.210 Caravelles. Mustang-performing Convair CV-990s facilitated amplification to Africa-specifically to Accra in Ghana and Lagos in Nigeria-on May 2, 1962, and its ultimate short- to medium-range European and North African, Caravelle-replacing crammer became the DC-9, which aboriginal appeared in Swissair accouter with the 1966 supply of its aboriginal DC-9-15. It was followed by the -30 and -50 and, in the process, the carrier became the third all-jet European abettor in 1968.

It entered the widebody era in 1971 with the accretion of 747-200Bs and the blazon was supplemented by six intercontinental DC-10-30 trijets.

In 1977, it became the co-launch operator, with Austrian Airlines, of the DC-9-81 (later redesignated MD-81), agreement a 15-firm and five-optioned order, and demography supply of the continued accompanying three years later.

Intended as the courage of its short- and medium-range European and North African fleet, it was too ample for the thinner sectors over which its endure Stage Two DC-9-30s and -50s were operated, and the SFR 450 actor aircraft backup affairs for Fokker F.100s, which included assets engines, spares, and a simulator, gave it an absolutely Stage III-compliant fleet.

Accommodating seven below cartage than its DC-9-30s, the F.100, in a dual-class, 84-seat configuration, had a 2,200-kilometer ambit with best fuel, payload, and one ton of cargo, and was appropriately ill-fitted to segments alfresco of its capital cartage arteries. Because of its size, it was aswell acclimated in added capacities, such as accouterment added abundance during off-peak (midday) periods and inaugurating new routes that were afterwards operated by aloft MD-81s afterwards abundantly angry cartage had becoming their size.

Powered by Rolls Royce Tay 620-15 engines, the Fokker F.100 alien a agenda cockpit with cyberbanking and multi-channel displays and congenital weight-reducing blended actual in its construction, and was apparent as a quieter, added ammunition efficient, and avant-garde bounded jet replacement.

Indeed, the 1,100-hour flight analysis affairs had approved that it offered a three-percent lower ammunition abridgement than predicted-or 15 percent below than that of the DC-9-30 it replaced-and an 82-decibel babble emission-or ten lower than that of the DC-9-30 and 15 lower than that of the DC-9-50.

Swissair’s ten F.100s, active in allotment from HB-IVA to -IVK (with -IVJ omitted), were allotment of a 61-strong, five-type, twin-, tri-, and quad-engined agile from four European and US manufacturers with an average, 7.8-year age, and it included 24 MD-81s, 5 A-310-200s, 5 A-310-300s, 12 MD-11s, and 5 747-300s, over and aloft the Fokkers. As the 16th better IATA and seventh better European carrier, Swissair served a 320,594-unduplicated kilometer network, which included 116 destinations in 68 countries on 5 continents.

In 1993, it had conducted 219,629 flight hours (a 5.8-percent access over the year-earlier period) and agitated over 7.8 actor cartage (a 4.7-percent increase) and about 268,000 bags of burden and mail (a 9.5-percent increase).

Nosed into Gate Two at Geneva’s Cointrin International Airport below the ablaze apex dejected on that June 1994 day, aircraft HB-IVH “Stadel,” antic its aphotic amber accumulation trim and red tail, was able for its 748-mile area as Flight SR 406 to Copenhagen, the aboriginal of several Swissair t-tails getting serviced for its midday coffer of departures. The others, all MD-81s, were acclimated on Switzerland-Denmark routes during aiguille times.

Despite its accepted different stature, the 84-passenger F.100 vied, at added times, with the 82-passenger Avro International RJ85 operated by accessory Crossair.

Sporting a conservative, tan and amber décor, with horizontally-patterned bench upholstery and appropriately blooming fabrics that covered the sidewalls, bathroom doors, and the aerial accumulator compartments, Swissair’s dual-class configured F.100s featured a forward, larboard bathroom and, aloft anatomy it, a dual-unit galley, and accommodated 28 business chic cartage in 5 four-abreast rows and 56 abridgement chic cartage in ten five-abreast rows. An aft, left, dual-unit galley, with its own account aperture (and giving it an MD-87 autogenous appearance), was able with three ovens and coffee makers and two full-size carts. Two aisle-opposed lavatories were installed in the acute tail.

After the flight plan and the accustomed apparatus abandonment (SID) from Aerodrome 05 had been entered into the flight administration adjustment in the cockpit, the engines were started by aboriginal acute the alpha about-face of the bulk two turbofan and afresh repeating the action for the bulk one engine afterwards its N1 revolutions had spooled up to 51 percent.

Disconnected from the towbar afterwards pushback at 1220, the F.100 accomplished its auto cycle with a burke advance and was instructed to chase a adolescent Swissair MD-81-while accordingly trailed by accession Scandinavia-bound twinjet, an SAS DC-9-20-during which the auto account was completed.

Turning on to the aerodrome with the aid of the adenoids caster council tiller, and application its flaps in the aloof position because of its ablaze load, aircraft HB-IVH, nudged into antecedent acceleration, acclimatized into its yield off run with a abounding burke advance afterwards absolute ability had been established, arresting the accurate as its V1 and circle speeds were achieved.

Retracting its basic afterwards a absolute ascend bulk had been established, the t-tailed bounded jet acclimatized into a 2,500-fpm ascendance bulk over the turquoise, sun-glinted apparent of “Lac Lemon” with its prominent, water-cascading “jet d’eau,” surmounting the city-limits of Lausanne.

The atramentous and blooming edges of the Alps receded below the starboard wingtip and, as the ambit increased, its always fleece-white peaks triumphantly rose against the abysmal dejected tropopause. Scattered, cotton-resembling aura islands, appearing to float aloft their peaks, created a corrugated plateau.

Like a window into the sky, the cyberbanking flight apparatus adjustment provided a abounding appearance of the aircraft’s parameters, the primary flight affectation antic an bogus horizon, a rate-of-climb bar, and dispatch and ambit tapes, and the aeronautics affectation advertence branch and ambit to waypoints.

Lunch, served on ceramics and preceded by affair and a baby tray of almonds and pretzel sticks, included white meat turkey and encrusted bologna slices, dill potato salad, a buttery allotment salad, French cornichons, hot white and aureate rolls, with butter, from the basket, 187-ml bottles of red or white wine, tartlets of pastry cream, pineapple slices, cherries, and aerated cream, coffee, and Swiss chocolates.

Swissair’s monthly, trilingual (French, German, and English) inflight magazine, Swissair Gazette, was accessible in all bench pockets.

Maintaining the type’s 35,000-foot account ceiling, the Tay 620-15 powered twinjet followed its primarily arctic heading, casual over Freiburg, Karlsruhe, the Rhine Valley, Frankfurt, Kassel, Hanover, and Hamburg in Germany, and afresh traversing the Baltic Sea against Denmark.

Copenhagen was advertisement clouded skies and about bisected the temperature, at 11 degrees Celsius, as Geneva.

Boring into close billow with its bulleted nose, the aircraft deployed its belly airbrake, enabling it to accept a sharp, but controlled descent.

Contacting the belfry and alpha its landing checklist, Flight 406 overflew the Navy blue, whitecapped Baltic, the aerodrome adjustment of Copenhagen’s Kastrup International Airport casual aloft its larboard wing.

Cruising over felt-green cartography and cyberbanking larboard to its final access heading, the F.100, now below a argent billow ceiling, continued its double-slotted Fowler flaps through the eight- and 15-degree positions over accession gap of baptize afore unleashing its basic into the slipstream and afresh added deploying its flaps to the 25- and 42-degree positions. Its spoilers were armed. As if attempting to annul a ballooning parachute, it opened its throttles.

Assuming a absolutely bottomward pitch, it already afresh intercepted the coast, the aerodrome inching against the windshield, as a computerized articulation provided 100-foot-interval ambit calls: 500… 400… 300… 200… 100…

As it bargain ability to admit its flare, the now ten-foot-interval calls commenced: 50… 40… 30… 20… 10…

Squatting, like an animal, on its afterwards leg capital wheels, the twinjet snatched the aerodrome with two blooming smoke puffs, and deceleration, to 60 knots, acceptable alteration of its adenoids caster council aback to its tiller.

Contacting Kastrup Ground Control, the aircraft was accustomed auto instructions, ultimately inching down the access adviser band to Gate 26, beside of an analogously configured SAS DC-9-20 t-tailed accompanying at 1430.

6. Fokker F.70:

Although the F.100 was a abstruse success and accomplished the sub-150-seat, short- to medium-range alcove with an advanced, fuel-efficient design, it had eclipsed the alcove that had spawned it-namely, that of a 70- to 80-passenger F.28 replacement-but bazaar studies still appear the charge for such an aircraft.

To ample the gap amid its F.50 turboprop and absolute F.100, Fokker removed a single, avant-garde and aft bung from the latter’s fuselage, abbreviation its breadth by 15.2 anxiety to aftermath a new 101-foot, 4 ¾-inch all-embracing breadth for adaptation of 79 single-class cartage at a 31- to 32-inch bench pitch. One of the two overwing emergency exits was removed and its accustomed agreement basic a avant-garde galley and an aft lavatory.

Powered by 13,850 thrust-pound Tay 620 engines, and offering, in parallel, the three standard, intermediate, and top gross weights of the F.100, the aircraft featured the afterward best payloads, yield off weights, landing weights, access speeds (at the best landing weight), and ranges (with 79 cartage and baggage): accustomed weight-20,516 pounds, 81,000 pounds, 75,000 pounds, 136 mph, and 1,243 abyssal miles; boilerplate weight-22,016 pounds, 84,000 pounds, 79,000 pounds, 139 mph, and 1,628 abyssal miles; and top gross weight-24,016 pounds, 88,000 pounds, 81,000 pounds, 140 mph, and 2,117 abyssal miles. The closing two weights were accompanying with alternative ammunition catchbasin adaptation increases.

Designated the F.70, the aircraft accustomed a barrage adjustment for ten from Indonesia’s Sempati Air, sparking the program’s barrage in June of 1993 and by April of the afterward year, orders had added to 29, forth with 5 options, from Air Littoral (five), British Midland (five), the Ford Motor Company (one), Mesa Airlines (two), the Netherlands government (one), and Pelita (five), over and aloft the Sempati totals.

First aerial on April 2, 1993 afterwards F.100 ancestor PH-MKC was adapted to this standard, it accumulated 436 hours during its 18-month flight analysis affairs and was after abutting by the aboriginal accumulation aircraft, which logged an added 20 hours in the air. Both Dutch RLD and FAA blazon certifications were accepted on October 14 of the afterward year. The Ford Motor Company, allegorical a accumulated adaptation with basement for 48, took supply of the aboriginal F.70 that month, while Sempati Air accustomed the aboriginal airline-standard aircraft on March 9, 1995.

7. Fokker F.130:

Intended as the third-and largest-version in Fokker’s bounded jet artefact band for routes acute adaptation aloft that of the antecedent F.100, the proposed F.130, with a 20.5-foot accumulation amplitude and the accession of an aft, anchorage commuter door, would accept had a 136-foot, 11 ¾-inch all-embracing length, and would accept active a 4.11-foot wingspan access accomplished by agency of basis plugs. The new bulk would accept been 102 feet.

A 128-passenger mixed-class adjustment would accept included 12 four-abreast seats at a 36-inch angle and 116 seats at a 32-inch pitch. Single-class adaptation would accept topped out at 137.

With a 34,430-pound best payload, the continued aeroplane would accept had a gross weight of amid 122,000 and 130,000 pounds and a best landing weight of 113,000 pounds. Range, with 137 cartage and their baggage, would accept been 1,956 miles, although optionally college weights would accept added this to 2,721 miles.

Whereas the F.70 served as a next-generation backup for the BAC-11-200 and the DC-9-10, and the F.100 did the aforementioned for the BAC-111-500 and the DC-9-30, the F.130 could accept served as a DC-9-50 and 737-200 successor.

Although wind adit testing commenced in June of 1991, and aerodynamic issues accepted no obstacle, bartering ones did. The Fokker F.130 was not to be-nor was Fokker itself, as alteration bread-and-butter altitude and poor US barter ante affected the admirable aircraft architect that still bore architect Anthony Fokker’s name to acknowledge defalcation in March of 1996, finer catastrophe accumulation of its F.50, F.60, F.70, and F.100 bounded airliners.

Of the 283 F.100s built, the last, registered PT-MRW, was delivered to TAM Brazilian Airlines on March 21, 1996. And, admitting able sales affairs for the F.70, which was operated by aloft carriers such as Alitalia, Austrian Airlines, British Midland, KLM, and Vietnam Airlines, alone 48 formed off the accumulation band afore it was bankrupt down, the last, registered PH-KZK, delivered to KLM Cityhopper on April 18, 1997.

8. Rekkof Restart:

Of the abounding proposals that attempted to deliver Fokker Aircraft, the Rekkof Restart one– whose architect and managing director, Jaap Rosen Jacobsen, was aswell arch of Belgian bounded carrier VLM–seemed the a lot of promising. Financed by a accommodation from a Swiss assurance and demography its name from the backwards-spelling of “Fokker,” the venture, with an intended, 400-person workforce, planned to aftermath 24 F.70s and F.100s per annum, and, by the end of 1998, had accumulated orders, affairs of understanding, and belletrist of absorbed for about this amount.

Although it had been envisioned that Rolls Royce would abide to aftermath the engines, subassemblies would now be furnished by added suppliers. Rekkof itself, Eurocopter Deutschland, Pfalz Flugzeugwerke, and Aircraft Services Lemwerder, for instance, would body accumulation sections, and Aerostructures Humble, replacing Shorts of Belfast, would now accommodate the wing. SABCA of Belgium would accomplish the appendage area and the accumbent stabilizer.

Based primarily aloft Boeing forecasts, appeal for 70-seaters was apparent as 1,331 and for 100-seaters 2,164 through 2017. Having already captured 29 percent of the market, Fokker/Rekkof believed it could advertise up to 332 F.70s and 432 F.100s, and saw the afterward advantages of restarting the accumulation band as against to designing an all-new aircraft.

Because the architecture was already established, no new development costs would accept been incurred. Compared to the aboriginal accumulation line, the Rekkof action would accept alien a 30-percent access in accumulation efficiency, alone acute 400 advisers to accomplish the 24 aircraft per year, and, with all the accoutrement and accouterment in place, the band could accept been reinitiated with little added than an analysis and a cast of the switch, facilitating deliveries by the bounce of 2000–or six months afore the actualization of abeyant competitors, such as the Bombardier CRJ-700, the British Aerospace RJX, and the Dornier Do-728JET. (Only the former, in the event, was anytime built.)

With the Fokker JetLine’s own avant-garde features-including its Rolls Royce turbofans, wing, and all-glass cockpit-it was about advised accepted to any abstruse appearance these aircraft could accept introduced, as bidding by Rekkof Aircraft itself. “There is an axiomatic appeal for aircraft in the articulation 70-90 seats,” it proclaimed. “Furthermore, the accepted operational agile of Fokker 70 aircraft is affidavit that there is no aircraft today that can beat its all-embracing artefact qualities.”

But, the best Rekkof delayed its relaunch due to abortive bread-and-butter conditions, the added those “today” advantages eroded, and alteration bazaar requirements anon apprenticed larger-capacity designs, bidding it to eventually focus on the unbuilt F.130.

Yet, as the aboriginal decade of the 21st aeon unfolded, so, too, did new antagonism in the anatomy of the Bombardier CRJ-900 and -1000 and CS100 from Canada, the Embraer E-170 to -195 alternation from Brazil, and the Antonov An-148 and -158 and the Sukhoi SSJ-100 bounded jet from Russia, causing what would accept been a still-robust, mostly bare bazaar at the aurora of the aeon to accept become a saturated one in 2015, and abrogation the adored Fokker JetLine annihilation added than a achromatic vision.